Sciatica refers to a set of symptoms that occur when the sciatic nerve, the longest nerve in the body, becomes compressed or irritated. The sciatic nerve originates in the lower back, travels through the buttocks, and extends down the back of each leg. When the nerve is affected, it can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness along the path of the nerve, typically on one side of the body.

The most common cause of sciatica is a herniated disc, also known as a slipped or bulging disc. However, other conditions that can lead to sciatic nerve compression include spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis (slippage of one vertebra over another), or spinal tumors.

Symptoms of sciatica can vary but often include:

Lower Back Pain: Sciatica usually starts in the lower back and may be a constant, dull ache or a sharp, shooting pain.

Leg Pain: The pain typically radiates from the lower back through the buttock and down the back of the leg. The pain can be severe and may worsen with movement, standing, or sitting for prolonged periods.

Numbness and Tingling: Along with the pain, individuals with sciatica may experience numbness, tingling, or a pins-and-needles sensation in the buttock, leg, or foot.

Weakness: In some cases, sciatica can lead to muscle weakness in the affected leg or foot, making it difficult to move or control the limb.

Pain Aggravation: Certain activities or positions, such as bending, lifting, coughing, or sneezing, may worsen the pain or trigger sciatic flare-ups.

Treatment for sciatica depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. It often involves a combination of the following:

Pain Management: Over-the-counter or prescription pain medications, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants may be recommended to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

Physical Therapy: Targeted exercises and stretches to improve flexibility, strengthen the back and core muscles, and relieve pressure on the sciatic nerve.

Heat and Cold Therapy: Applying heat or cold packs to the affected area to help reduce pain and inflammation.

Epidural Steroid Injections: In some cases, corticosteroid injections into the space around the spinal nerve roots (epidural space) may be recommended to provide temporary relief from severe sciatica symptoms.

Surgical Intervention: If conservative treatments fail to provide relief or if there is a severe underlying condition, surgery may be considered to alleviate nerve compression. Common surgical procedures for sciatica include discectomy (removal of the herniated disc), laminectomy (removal of part of the spinal bone to relieve pressure), or spinal fusion.

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